Pick and Mix 31 –  questions and answers

Sammy Borras Illustrator

 

Evelyn Cheeseman – entomologist extraordinaire in her own comic strip

Why I love aphids – soldiers, eusociality, plasterers

What’s the buzz about pollinators? Scott McArt from Conrell University explains in this video

Wildlife-friendly farming increases crop yield: evidence for ecological intensification

Tony Juniper wonders how Winston Churchill would have reacted to the threat of climate change

Jeff Olleton asks if the angry response of (some) environmentalists in the aftermath of the Notre Dame fire reasonable?

This one from Dynamic Ecology  on “Quantifying the life histories of ecological ideas”  is definitely for ecology nerds, but I found it very interesting J

How biodegradable is biodegradble plastic anyway?

What is the impact of journal impact factor on promotion, tenure and appointment of academics?

Terry McGlynn asks if some people are just innately smarter than others.  What do you think?

 

 

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Graphical abstracts are so passé, let’s hear it for the haiku highlight

Graphical abstracts,

They’re past their sell by date;

Use Haikus instead

 

It may surprise you, or perhaps not, that insects, as well as inspiring poets to wax lyrical, inspire many entomologists to wax poetical 🙂  Indeed, I have, on occasion, penned the odd verse myself.

Available at a very reasonable price from Pemberley Books  and no, I have no vested interests 🙂

Back in 2016 I stepped down as Editor-in-Chief of Insect Conservation & Diversity to become a Senior Editor, handing over the reins to Raphael Didham who had been a Senior Editor since 2010.  Now, I have known Raph a long time, back in the 1990s we were colleagues at Silwood Park, but it wasn’t until I convinced him to join Twitter as @EntoRaph, at the Royal Entomological Society Publications Meeting in March this year, that I discovered his dark secret.  He is a poet as well as an entomologist!  Raph is, despite his late conversion to Twitter, a pretty innovative guy; just look at the excellent changes he has made to our journal, and once he discovered, via Twitter, that I too, indulge in the odd spot of verse, haikus to be precise, it was inevitable that the idea of the Haiku Highlight was born 🙂

The birth of a notion

And that dear Reader, is how it all began………


I was quite proud of this one 🙂

The eagle-eyed reader may have noticed that the hashtag for our Haiku Highlights is #sciku. The Sciku project  is the brainwave of zoologist Andrew Holmes @AndrewMHolmes, who argues that writing haiku has made him a better scientist.  Being asked to keep your writing short and sweet, yet still understandable, may sometimes be difficult, but as Judy Fort Brenneman points out, it can be great fun.

If you would like to contribute to our Haiku Highlight project do get in touch. I wonder if it will catch on with other journals, it would certainly be fun.  While I am on the subject of entomologist poets, if you like butterflies and poetry, I can thoroughly recommend The Butterfly Collection, by Richard Harrington; beautiful photographs and a range of verse from haiku to sonnet.

 

Published by Brambleby Books http://www.bramblebybooks.co.uk/butterfly_collection.asp

 

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Satiable curiosity – side projects are they worthwhile?

I’ve been meaning to write this one for quite a while.  It was stimulated by two posts, one from the incredibly prolific Steve Heard, the other by the not quite so prolific, but equally interesting,  Manu Saunders.  First off, what is a side project?  To me, a side project is one that is not directly funded by a research council or other funding agency or, in some cases, one that you do in your spare time, or to the horror of some line-managers, is not strictly in your job description 🙂 The tyranny of modern research funding dictates that projects must have specific research questions and be accompanied by hypotheses and very specific predictions; most proposals I referee, even contain graphs with predicted results and almost all have ‘preliminary data’ to support their applications.   This is not necessarily a bad thing but to directly quote Manu Saunders from her blog post

“Whittaker’s (1952) study of ‘summer foliage insect communities in the Great Smoky Mountains’ is considered one of the pioneer studies of modern community ecology methods. The very short Introduction starts with the sentence “The study was designed to sample foliage insects in a series of natural communities and to obtain results of ecological significance from the samples.” No “specific research questions” and the hypotheses and predictions don’t appear until the Discussion” Sounds like bliss.

The central ethos of my research career which began in 1977, can be summed up by this quotation uttered by the character ‘Doc’ in John Steinbeck’s novel Sweet Thursday “I want take everything I’ve seen and thought and learned and reduce them and relate them and refine them until I have something of meaning, something of use” (Steinbeck, 1954).* The other thing that has driven me for as long as I can remember, and why I ended up where I am,  is something I share with Rudyard Kipling’s Elephant Child, and that is a “satiable curiosity”:-) Something that has always frustrated me, is that, in the UK at least, most funded research tends to be of a very short duration, usually three years, often less than that**, and if you are very lucky, maybe five years.  If you work on real life field populations, even if you work on aphids, these short term projects are not really very useful; laboratory work is of course a different matter.

I got my first ‘permanent’ job in 1982 working for UK Forestry Commission Research based at their Northern Research Station (NRS) just outside Edinburgh.  My remit initially was to work on the pine beauty moth, Panolis flammea and finally, on the large pine weevil, Hylobius abietis.  As a committed aphidophile, I was determined, job description or not, to carry on working with aphids. I decided that the easiest and most useful thing to do was to set up a long-term field study and follow aphid populations throughout the year.  My PhD was on the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi, a host alternating aphid, the primary host of which is the bird cherry, Prunus padus, with which  Scotland is very well supplied, and fortuitously, just down the road from NRS was Roslin Glen Nature Reserve with a nice healthy population of bird  cherry trees.  I chose ten suitable trees and started what was to become a ten-year once a week, lunch time counting and recording marathon.  I also decided to repeat a study that my PhD supervisor, Tony Dixon had done, record the populations of the sycamore aphid, Drepanosiphum platanoidis.  In the grounds of NRS were five adjacent sycamore tree, Acer pseudoplatanus, and these became my early morning study subjects, also once a week. I had no articulated hypotheses, my only aim was to count and record numbers and life stages and anything else I might see. Anathema to research councils but exactly what Darwin did 🙂

Although it was a ‘permanent’ job, after ten years I moved to Imperial College at Silwood Park and immediately set up a new, improved version of my sycamore study, this time a once weekly early morning*** walk of 52 trees in three transects and with much more data collection involved, not just the aphids, their natural enemies and anything else I found and on top of all that, the trees themselves came in for scrutiny, phenology, growth, flowering and fruiting, all went into my data sheets.  I also set up a bird cherry plot, this time with some hypotheses articulated 🙂

As a result of my weekly walk along my sycamore transects, a few years later I set up yet another side project, this time an experimental cum observational study looking at tree seedling survival and colonisation underneath different tree canopies. At about the same time, initially designed as a pedagogical exercise, I started my study of the biodiversity of Bracknell roundabouts.

One might argue that most undergraduate and MSc research projects could also come under the heading of side projects, but I think that unless they were part of a long term study they aren’t quite the same thing, even though some of them were published.  So, the burning question, apart from the benefits of regular exercise, was the investment of my time and that of my student helpers and co-researchers worth it scientifically?

Side project 1.  Sycamore aphids at the Northern Research Station, 1982-1992

I collected a lot of aphid data, most of which remains, along with the data from Side project 2, in these two notebooks, waiting to be entered into a spreadsheet.  I also collected some limited natural enemy data, presence of aphid mummies and numbers killed by entomopathogenic fungi.  Tree phenological data is limited to bud burst and leaf fall and as I only sampled five trees I’m not sure that this will ever amount to much, apart from perhaps appearing in my blog or as part of a book.  Nothing has as yet made it into print, so a nil return on investment.

Raw data – anyone wanting to help input into a spreadsheet, let me know 🙂 Also includes the data for Side project 2

 

Side project 2.  Rhopalosiphum padi on Prunus padus at Roslin Glen Nature Reserve 1982-1992

I was a lot more ambitious with this project, collecting lots of aphid and natural enemy data and also a lot more tree phenology data, plus noting the presence and counting the numbers of other herbivores.  I have got some of this, peak populations and egg counts in a spreadsheet and some of it has made it to the outside world (Leather, 1986, 1993: Ward et al., 1998).  According to Google Scholar, Ward et al., is my 6th most cited output with, at the time of writing, 127 citations, Leather (1993) is also doing quite well with 56 citations, while Leather (1986) is much further down the list with a mere 38 citations.  I have still not given up hope of publishing some of the other aphid data.  I mentioned that I also recorded the other herbivores I found, one was a new record for bird cherry (Leather, 1989), the other, the result of a nice student project on the bird cherry ermine moth (Leather & MacKenzie, 1994).  I would, I think, be justified in counting this side project as being worthwhile, despite the fact that I started it with no clear hypotheses and the only aim to count what was there.

 

Side project 3.  Everything you wanted to know about sycamores but were afraid to ask 1992-2012

As side projects go this was pretty massive.  Once a week for twenty years, me and on some occasions, an undergraduate research intern, walked along three transects of 52 sycamore trees, recording everything that we could see and count and record, aphids, other herbivores, natural enemies and tree data, including leaf size, phenology, height, fruiting success and sex expression.  My aim was pretty similar to that of Whittaker’s i.e.   “…to sample foliage insects in a series of natural communities and to obtain results of ecological significance from the samples”  truly a mega-project.  I once calculated that there are counts from over 2 000 000 leaves which scales up to something like 10 000 000 pieces of data, if you conservatively estimate five data observations per leaf. Quite a lot of the data are now computerized thanks to a series of student helpers and Vicki Senior, currently finishing her PhD at Sheffield University, but certainly not all of it. In terms of output, only two papers so far (Wade & Leather, 2002; Leather et al., 2005), but papers on the winter moth, sycamore and maple aphids and orange ladybird are soon to be submitted.  On balance, I think that this was also worthwhile and gave me plenty of early morning thinking time in pleasant surroundings and a chance to enjoy Nature.

The sycamore project – most of the raw data, some of which still needs to be computerised 🙂

 

Side project 5. Sixty bird cherry trees 1993-2012

This project has already featured in my blog in my Data I am never going to publish series and also in a post about autumn colours and aphid overwintering site selection.  Suffice to say that so far, thanks to my collaborator Marco Archetti, two excellent papers have appeared (Archetti & Leather, 2005; Archetti et al., 2009), the latter of which is my third most cited paper with 101 cites to date and the former is placed at a very respectable 21st place.  I don’t really see any more papers coming out from this project, but I might get round to writing something about the study as a whole in a natural history journal. On balance, even though only two papers have appeared from this project, I count this as having been a very worthwhile investment of my time.

All now in a spreadsheet and possibly still worthwhile delving into the data

 

Side project 5.  Urban ecology – Bracknell roundabouts 2002-2012

This started as a pedagogical exercise, which will be the subject of a blog post in the not too distant future. The majority of the field work was done by undergraduate and MSc students and in the latter years spawned a PhD student, so a side project that became a funded project 🙂 To date, we have published seven papers from the project (Helden & Leather, 2004, 2005; Leather & Helden, 2005ab; Helden et al., 2012; Jones & Leather, 2012; Goodwin et al., 2017) and there are probably two more to come.  Definitely a success and a very worthwhile investment of my time.  The story of the project is my most requested outreach talk so also gives me the opportunity to spread the importance of urban ecology to a wider audience.

The famous roundabouts – probably the most talked and read about roundabouts in the world 🙂 Sadly Roundabout 1 i n o longer with us; it was converted into a four-way traffic light junction last year 😦

 

Side project 6.  Testing the Janzen-Connell Hypothesis – Silwood Park, 2005-2012

I mentioned this project fairly recently so will just link you to it here.  So far only one paper has come out of this project (Pigot & Leather, 2008) and I don’t really see me getting round to doing much more than producing another Data I am never going to publish article, although it does get a passing mention in the book that I am writing with former colleagues Tilly Collins and Patricia Reader.  It also gave undergraduate and MSc project students something to do.  Overall, this just about counts as a worthwhile use of my time.

Most of this is safely in a spreadsheet but the data in the notebooks still needs inputting

According to my data base I have published 282 papers since 1980 which given that I have supervised 52 PhD students, had 5 post-docs, and, at a rough estimate, supervised 150 MSc student projects and probably 200 undergraduate student projects doesn’t seem to be very productive 😦 Of the 282 papers, 125 are from my own projects, which leaves 139 papers for the post-docs and PhD students and 17 from the side projects.  Three of the papers published from the side projects were by PhD students, so if I remove them from the side projects that gives an average of 2.3 papers per side project and 2.4 papers per post-doc and PhD student.   So, in my opinion, yes, side projects are definitely worth the investment.

 

References

Archetti, M. & Leather, S.R. (2005) A test of the coevolution theory of autumn colours: colour preference of Rhopalosiphum padi on Prunus padus. Oikos, 110, 339-343.

Archetti, M., Döring, T.F., Hagen, S.B., Hughes, N.M., Leather, S.R., Lee, D.W., Lev-Yadun, S., Manetas, Y., Ougham, H.J., Schaberg, P.G., & Thomas, H. (2009) Unravelling the evolution of autumn colours: an interdisciplinary approach. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 24, 166-173.

Goodwin, C., Keep, B., & Leather, S.R. (2017) Habitat selection and tree species richness of roundabouts: effects on site selection and the prevalence of arboreal caterpillars. Urban Ecosystems, 19, 889-895.

Helden, A.J. & Leather, S.R. (2004) Biodiversity on urban roundabouts – Hemiptera, management and the species-area relationship. Basic and Applied Ecology, 5, 367-377.

Helden, A.J. & Leather, S.R. (2005) The Hemiptera of Bracknell as an example of biodiversity within an urban environment. British Journal of Entomology & Natural History, 18, 233-252.

Helden, A.J., Stamp, G.C., & Leather, S.R. (2012) Urban biodiversity: comparison of insect assemblages on native and non-native trees.  Urban Ecosystems, 15, 611-624.

Jones, E.L. & Leather, S.R. (2012) Invertebrates in urban areas: a review. European Journal of Entomology, 109, 463-478.

Leather, S.R. (1986) Host monitoring by aphid migrants: do gynoparae maximise offspring fitness? Oecologia, 68, 367-369.

Leather, S.R. (1989) Phytodecta pallida (L.) (Col., Chrysomelidae) – a new insect record for bird cherry (Prunus padus). Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine, 125, 17-18.

Leather, S.R. (1993) Overwintering in six arable aphid pests: a review with particular relevance to pest management. Journal of Applied Entomology, 116, 217-233.

Leather, S.R. & Helden, A.J. (2005) Magic roundabouts?  Teaching conservation in schools and universities. Journal of Biological Education, 39, 102-107.

Leather, S.R. & Helden, A.J. (2005) Roundabouts: our neglected nature reserves? Biologist, 52, 102-106.

Leather, S.R. & Mackenzie, G.A. (1994) Factors affecting the population development of the bird cherry ermine moth, Yponomeuta evonymella L. The Entomologist, 113, 86-105.

Leather, S.R., Wade, F.A., & Godfray, H.C.J. (2005) Plant quality, progeny sequence, and the sex ratio of the sycamore aphid, Drepanoisphum platanoidis. Entomologia experimentalis et applicata, 115, 311-321.

Pigot, A.L. & Leather, S.R. (2008) Invertebrate predators drive distance-dependent patterns of seedling mortality in a temperate tree Acer pseudoplatanus. Oikos, 117, 521-530.

Steinbeck, J. (1954) Sweet Thursday, Viking Press, New York, USA.

Wade, F.A. & Leather, S.R. (2002) Overwintering of the sycamore aphid, Drepanosiphum platanoidis. Entomologia experimentalis et applicata, 104, 241-253.

Ward, S.A., Leather, S.R., Pickup, J., & Harrington, R. (1998) Mortality during dispersal and the cost of host-specificity in parasites: how many aphids find hosts? Journal of Animal Ecology, 67, 763-773.

Whittaker, R.H. (1952) A Study of summer foliage insect communities in the Great Smoky Mountains. Ecological Monographs, 22, 1-44.

 

*

I was so impressed by this piece of philosophy that it is quoted in the front of my PhD thesis 🙂

**

My second post-doc was only for two years.

***

You may wonder why I keep emphasising early morning in relation to surveying sycamore aphids.  Sycamore aphids are very easy to disturb so it is best to try and count them in the early morning before they have a chance to warm up and become flight active.

 

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Pick and Mix 30 – to amuse and inform

Picture from Erica McAlister’s (@FlygirlNHM) Twitter stream –  Picture held in the NTNU University Museum, Norway

 

Eradicating invasive vertebrate predators could help save rare insects

Are you bringing something nasty back with you from your exotic holiday?

We really must stop using plastic so much – it gets everywhere

Insects as a protein source

Many people’s first memories of the countryside come from visiting a National Park.

Great article by Christie Bahlai and colleagues – Open Science Isn’t Always Open to All Scientists – You can follow Christie on Twitter @cbahlai

Finding and climbing the tallest tree in the World!

A lament for declining wild bee populations

Interview with Anne Sverdrup-Thygeson about her new book Terra Insecta and the title change forced on her by her Amercian publishers

Bees seeking blood, sweat and tears is more common than you think Manu Saunders (@ManuSaunders) and Toby Smith cast a critical eye on the recent story of the eye-dwelling bees

 

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Ten more papers that shook my world – Plant growth formulae for entomologists – Radford (1967) and Wyatt & White (1977)

Plant growth formulae for entomologists, what a great title for a paper or even a book J These two papers, separated by a decade had a great influence on my PhD and subsequent entomological career, or at least the lab based part of it. I started my PhD at the University of East Anglia on October 2nd 1977, where I was lucky enough to be supervised by that doyen of the aphid world, Professor Tony Dixon.  I was, and still am, convinced that the sooner you get started on practical work the better and that is what I tell my students.  Yes, reading is important but getting to know your organism early on, is just as, if not more, important. You can catch up on your in-depth reading later, but that early ‘hands on’ experience, even if what you first do is not publishable, is invaluable.  I see from my lab notebooks that my first experiments* were examining the effects of host plant on the fecundity and longevity of my study aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi.

My first experiment as a PhD student!

It was doing these very simple experiments, collecting development, survival and reproductive data that introduced me to the idea of measuring life history parameters in the round,

One of my first data sheets – not used in my thesis but gave me invaluable experience for later on.

rather than as single factors, akin to how ecologists move from measuring species diversity as a simple species count to using diversity indices that combine other attributes and describe the community more holistically. So it was with me and growth and reproductive rates. I wanted to be able to infer what my laboratory results might mean in the field and to develop faster methods of screening for host plant effects.  I came across, or was pointed in the direction of, two papers that had great influence on my research, Radford (1967)** about measuring growth rates, albeit of plants, and Wyatt & White (1977) on how to measure intrinsic rates of increase rm without having to go through the very laborious and time-consuming methods devised by Birch (1948); working on aphids makes you do things in a hurry 😊

Ian Wyatt and his colleague Peter White did a series of painstaking laboratory experiments to obtain reproductive figures for aphids and mites and came up with a simplified version of the Birch equation such that

rm = 0.738(lnMd)/d

 where Md = the number of offspring produced over a period of time equal to the pre-reproductive period D and 0.738 is a constant (Wyatt & Wyatt, 1977)

The Radford paper, reinforced by reading a paper by another great aphidologist, Helmut van Emden, Professor of Horticulture at the University of Reading (van Emden, 1969) convinced me that Mean Relative Growth Rate (MRGR) was the way to go to obtain comparative measures of host plant suitability for my aphids.  To save you looking it up, MRGR is calculated as follows:

The beauty of this, especially if you are working with very small animals such as aphids, is that you don’t need to weigh them at birth, you can if you want, just measure weights between two time periods.

Screening plants for resistance to aphids is an integral part of developing sustainable and environmentally friendly ways of protecting your crops.  At the time I started my PhD several methods were in use, ranging from measuring direct fecundity and developmental time (Dean, 1974), to short cuts such as counting the number of mature embryos at adult moult (Dewar, 1977) and of course Mean Relative Growth Rate (van Emden, 1969).  Although I tended to measure life-time fecundity and longevity for almost all my experiments, having the short cut of MRGR and in many cases the fecundity achieved in the first seven days of reproduction*** (e.g. Leather & Dixon, 1981) were useful tools to have.  What was the world shaking discovery for me, and something that in retrospect, I find surprising that no one else cottoned on to, was that MRGR was highly correlated with fecundity and that this meant that MRGR was correlated with the intrinsic rate of increase (Leather & Dixon, 1984).  This means that you can screen host plants and predict population trajectories with experimental observations that take less than half the time using the traditional measurements.  That paper proved very popular and is Number 7 in my citation list, with, at the time of writing, 80 citations.   A few years later, when I had moved on to working with other insect orders, I found that the relationship between MRGR and rm applied to Lepidoptera and that different insect orders followed the same rules (Leather, 1994).

Lepidoptera and aphids, singing from the same data sheets (Leather, 1994).

So truly, a paper that shook my world.

References

Birch, L.C. (1948) The intrinsic rate of natural increase of an insect population.  Journal of Animal Ecology, 48, 15-26.

Dean, G.J.W. (1974) Effect of temperature on the cereal aphids, Metopolphium dirhodum (Wlk.), Rhoaplosiphum padi (L.) and Macrosiphum avenae (F.) (Hem., Aphididae).  Bulletin of Entomological Research, 63, 401-409.

Dewar, A.M. (1977) Assessment of methods for testing varietal resistance to aphids in cereals.  Annals of Applied Biology, 87, 183-190.

Fisher, R.A. (1921) Some remarks on the methods formulated in a recent article on ‘The quantitative analysis of plant growth’. Annals of Applied Biology, 7, 367-372.

Leather, S.R. & Dixon, A.F.G. (1981) The effect of cereal growth stage and feeding site on the reproductive activity of the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosihum padiAnnals of Applied Biology, 97, 135-141.

Leather, S.R. & Dixon, A.F.G. (1984) Aphid growth and reproductive rates. Entomologia experimentalis et applicata, 35, 137-140.  80 cites number 7 in my list

Leather, S.R. (1994) Insect growth and reproductive rates. In Individuals, Populations and Patterns in Ecology (ed. by S.R. Leather, A.D. Watt, N.J. Mills & K.F.A. Walters), pp. 35-43. Intercept, Andover.

Radford, P.J. (1967) Growth analysis formulae – their use and abuse. Crop Science, 7, 171-175.

van Emden, H.F. (1969) Plant resistance to Myzus persicae induced by a plant regulator and measured by aphid relative growth rate. Entomologia experimentalis et applicata, 12, 125-131.

Wyatt, I. J. & White, P. F. (1977) Simple estimation of intrinsic increase rates for aphids and tetranychid mites. Journal of Applied Ecology 14, 757-766.

 

*

and boy was I quick off the mark.  I started my PhD on October 2nd and here I am 24 days later with cereal plants at GS 12 ready to receive aphids J

**

it is only fair to point out that Radford owed his inspiration to the work of that great statistician, Ronald Fisher (Fisher, 1921)

***

aphids like many insects produce over half their progeny in the first week or so

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Aphids galore, les pucerons à gogo – UK-France Joint Meeting on Aphids – April 3rd to 5th 2019

The giant aphid – a fitting start to an aphid conference, albeit taxonomically suspect 😊

I have just returned from a very enjoyable two-day meeting at Rothamsted Research Station in Harpenden.  This was a follow-up to the very enjoyable meeting we had in Paris in 2015 which made me ask somewhat facetiously, if pea aphids ruled the world 😊 As with the Paris meeting, this recent meeting was jointly organised by Jean-Christophe Simon and Richard Harrington with some input by me.  There were ninety delegates, and not just from France and the UK; we had a keynote speaker from Japan, Tsutomu Tsuchida, and also speakers from Belgium, the Czech Republic, Germany, Ireland and Switzerland.

Tsumato Tsuchida, me, Richard Harrington, Julie Jaquiéry, Jean-Christophe Simon and Richard Blackman.

Our other three keynote speakers included two of the doyens of the aphid world, Roger Blackman and Helmut van Emden   and Julie Jaquiéry from the University of Rennes.  As with the Paris meeting, many of the talks were about the pea aphid and symbionts.  Other aphids did, however, get mentioned, including my favourite aphid, Rhopaloisphum padi, which featured in an excellent talk by PhD student Amma Simon from Rothamsted, who is supervised by one of my former students, Gia Aradottir.  There was an excellent poster session, a tribute to the late great, Ole Heie from Mariusz Kanturski, a fabulous film by Urs Wyss, which included shocking scenes of lime aphids being torn apart by vicious predators, and of course the conference dinner.

It would take too long to describe all the talks, so I will let the pictures tell the story of a very enjoyable meeting.  Hopefully we will all meet again in France in 2023.

Great talks and a packed lecture theatre

Food and chat

Very animated poster sessions

Three senior aphidologists in action,  Helmut Van Emden, Hugh Loxdale and Roger Blackman

Richard Harrington presenting Roger Blackman and ‘Van’ van Emden with the Award of the Golden Aphid – the lighting in the conference dining area was very peculiar 😊

Strange lighting at the conference dinner

From the Urs Wyss film– lime aphid moulting

The giant aphid having a quick snack

And in case you wondered, there were embryos inside the giant aphid 🙂

Many thanks to the Royal Entomological Society and BAPOA/INRA for funding.

And here are most of the delegates on the final day

Aphid SIG 2019

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Pick and Mix 29 – More stuff that caught my eye

What happens when you microwave two grapes and why

What happens if all the insects disappear?

Artists illustrating the digital collection at  The Natural History Museum London

Erica McAlister writes about the wonderful Dark-Edged Bee Fly

More from Erica on the wonders of flies

Growing carrots in bottles

Spanish salt pans, conservation and bird migrations

Interactions between fire and butterflies – how prescribed burning helps rare species

Successful eradication of an invasive species

This might upset a few people – is the term rewilding just a trendy buzzword for restoration?

 

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Green islands – safe and healthy in a sea of death

Those of you whom work in forests, will, I am sure, be familiar with the term “green island”.  To a forester or forest entomologist, a green island is a clump of trees that have, for some reason or other, survived the ravages of an insect outbreak.  The earliest reference I can find to this phenomenon is in a 1927 paper by the German myrmecologist Hermann Eidmann (1897-1949), who described them as green oases, or, as the paper was written in German, more correctly, “grüne Oasen” (Eidmann, 1927).

Red wood ants helping maintain a “grüne Oasen”   green oasis” in a German pine forest (Eidman, 1927).

As well as “farming aphids” to obtain sugar from their honeydew, ants also have a similar mutualistic relationship with plants that give them a sugary reward to protect them from herbivorous insects, except those that also provide the ants with sugar (Janzen 1966; Bentley, 1977).  The mutualisms can be very sophisticated. In Michigan, the North American black cherry, Prunus serotina, times nectar production from its extra-floral nectaries to attract the ant Formica obscuripes  when the larvae of its major herbivore, the eastern tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americanum are at their most vulnerable (Tilman, 1978).  Trees that are protected have greatly reduced levels of herbivory. When more than one ant colony is involved, rather than single trees being protected, a group of trees can be saved from defoliation, and form a green island.  The areas covered by these green islands can be quite extensive, for example two ant colonies of the ant  Formica polyctena were enough to protect pine trees from the nun moth Lymantria monacha in Sweden within a 45 m diameter around the colonies (0.16 ha) (Wellenstein, 1980) and green islands of up to 3 ha have been reported (Eidmann, 1927).

Left – canopy of trees near ant nests, on the right, trees not close to ant nests Wellenstein (1980)

 

In Finland, one colony of the ant F. aquilonia is enough to create subarctic mountain birch (Betula pubescens), green islands of up to 0.12 ha in area (Laine & Niemelä, 1980).

Green islands attributed to the activity of the ant Formica aquilonia in subarctic Finland (Laine & Niemela, 1980).

It would seem that the case for the ants protecting the trees against defoliating herbivores and being the cause for the green islands is very convincing.  Tom White, never one to avoid a controversy, disagreed. He suggested that it was the nest building activities of the ants that were the cause for the green islands, the refuse dumps provide higher concentrations of nutrients that the roots of surrounding trees can access and additionally soil moisture conditions are improved, both these factors encouraging more vigorous growth in those trees close to ant nests, making them less palatable to herbivores (White, 1985).   The Finnish team responded to this with some additional data and arguments defending their hypothesis (Niemelä & Laine, 1986) and there the matter rested, for a while at least. Not satisfied with their post hoc response, the Finns came up with, to me at any rate, a very convincing field experiment where they showed that soil nitrogen did not vary significantly with distance from ant nests and that birch leaf nitrogen content and moth larval growth rates and survival were also not affected by distance from ant nests (Karhu, 1998; Karhu & Neuvonen, 1998), indicating that the green islands were indeed, due to predation by the ants and not improved tree nutrition.

Soil nitorgen in realtion to distance from ant colonies (Karhu & Neuvonen, 1998).

You might think that this would be the last word, but you would be wrong 🙂  The Karhu and Neuvonen paper, is, in the journal, followed by a “comment” paper by no less a person than Tom White (White 1998) in which he disputes in no uncertain terms, their interpretation of their new data.  Matthias Schaefer, the then Editor of Oecologia, felt that some sort of explanation was needed and added a final note to the saga, which in itself makes very interesting reading.  I get the feeling that there were some strong emotions involved 🙂

Pouring oil on troubled water – wise words from Editor-in-Chief Mathias Schaefer

 

References

Bentley, B.L. (1977) Extrafloral nectaries and protection by pugnacious bodyguards. Annual Review of Ecology & Systematics, 8, 407-427.

Eidmann, H. (1927) Weitre Beobachtungen über den Nutzen de roten Waldameise.  Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde, 3, 49-51.

Janzen D.H. (1966) Coevolution of mutualism between ants and Acacias in Central America. Evolution, 20, 249-275.

Kaiser, W., Huguet, E., Casas, J., Commin, C. & Giron, D. (2010)  Plant green-island phenotype induced by leaf-miners is mediated by bacterial symbionts. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 277, 2311-2319.

Karhu, K.J. (1998) Effects of ant exclusion during outbreaks of a defoliator and a sap-sucker on birch. Ecological Entomology, 23, 185-194Kah.

Karhu, K.J. & Neuvonen, S. (1998) Wood ants and a geometrid defoliator of birch: predation outweighs beneficial effects through the host plant. Oecologia, 113, 509-516.

Laine, K.J. & Niemela, P. (1980) The influence of ants on the survival of mountain birches during an Oporinia autumnata (Lep., Geometridae) outbreak. Oecologia, 47, 39-42.

Niemela, P. & Laine, K.J. (1986) Green islands – predation not nutrition. Oecologia, 68, 476-478.

Tilman, D. (1978) Cherries, ants and tent caterpillars: timing of nectar production in relation in relation to susceptibility of caterpillars to ant predation. Ecology, 59, 686-692.

Wellenstein, G. (1980) Auswirkung hügelbauender Waldameisen der Formica rufa‐Gruppe auf forstschädliche Raupen und das Wachstum der Waldbäume. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie, 89, 145-157.

White, T.C.R. (1985) Green islands – nutrition not predation – an alternative hypothesis. Oecologia, 67, 455-456.

White, T.C.R. (1998) Green islands – still not explained.  Oecologia, 113, 517-518.

 

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The Verrall Supper 2019 – entomological convivality

For many entomologists The Rembrandt Hotel in South Kensington and the first Wednesday of March means only one thing – the Verrall Supper. I report on the activities of the Verrall Association annually and if you click on this link you will be able to work your way back through previous reports to my very first attempt.  This will, once again, be largely a photographic record.  This year the first Wednesday of March was the 6th but despite the date of the Supper always being the first Wednesday in March it still seemed to have caught a few Verrallers by surprise.  Consequently numbers were slightly down compared with last year’s, although the number of non-attending Verrallers paying to retain their membership was at an all-time high.  One notable absence, due to a slipped disc, was Richard Lane, the newly elected Treasurer of the Entomological Club, under whose auspices, the Verrall Association is privileged to run.

More positively we were slightly up on female entomologist this year, 36 % compared with last year’s 32%.  There is still much progress to be made, but we have seen a year on year increase now for the last four years so, perhaps one day we will hit that magic 50:50 mark.

I performed a humanist blessing, which seemed to meet with satisfaction from all sides, and unbeknownst to me was caught on video by one of the Verrallers  I reproduce it here if anyone feels like using it at a similar occasion.

As we come together at this special time, let us pause a moment to appreciate the opportunity for good company and to thank all those past and present whose efforts have made this event possible. As we go through life, the most important thing that we can collect is good memories.  Thank you for all being here today to share this meal as a treasured part of this collection.

And now as the old cliché goes, let the pictures tell the story.

Clive Farrell doing his usual stint on the Registration Desk.  Something seems to be puzzling him?

Max Barclay presenting Professor Helmut van Emden with a copy of the latest Royal Entomological Society Handbook, Beetle Larvae.  Van’s father was a Coleopterist who started this book more than fifty years ago, hence the presentation.

Pre-Supper drinks – and some evidence that not all Verrallers are gray, male and balding, although many are 🙂

The Wyebugs Team – Mike Copland and Sue Stickels – Ray Cannon in the background talking with Keith Walters and Roger Booth

And here they are revealed!

People with drinks including the President of the Royal Entomological Society Chris Thomas, doing some arm-waving, and the rather too-long queue for the bar.  There was supposed to be another bar but there was an electrical fault.

The next set of photographs are what I describe as ‘Ento Bling’. When it comes to “smart casual”, which is the dress code for the Verrall Supper, I feel that in most cases, it is easier for female entomologists to show their dedication to insects than the male of the species, alternatively, perhaps males are just less imaginative and go for the easy tie option 🙂

The food, as usual, was excellent and most tables seemed to have a healthy mix of entomologists of different age classes and sex.

You try your best but bald heads keep appearing 🙂

 

And finally, I wonder who this was?  🙂  I’ll give you a clue – she is a Dipterist!

 Many thanks to all who attended and I hope to see you all again next year plus many new faces.

 

 

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Pick and Mix 28 – some video treats

A very interesting, if somewhat gruesome video, of a botfly larva being removed from a human

Continuing with the fly stuff, here are some maggots having an evening meal 🙂 Seriously though, the article is all about using insects as food

And continuing with flies and food – don’t forget that bees are not the only pollinators

Now some hungry mosquitoes, which are of course. also flies

More flies – this time on how to stop them eating your wheat crop

Cockroach farming for food and medicine

Beetles like light too

Magnificent Monarchs in flight – a moving experience

A musical introduction to insect orders

A moving video from a teenage girl about insect extinction

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