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Protecting and valuing our public rights of way

As I mentioned in an earlier post, I have, because of the covid pandemic, been doing a lot of walking recently. As a result I have discovered a lot of public footpaths and bridleways in the immediate neighbourhood, some of which are much more well-trodden and accessible than others.

The one of the left only became visible after I hacked back the vegetation 🙂

I’ve always been an advocate of the “great outdoors” albeit, as a child, having to be occasionally chased outdoors by my parents when they thought I had been reading too much 🙂 There is plenty of evidence that contact with nature is good for our mental and physical health (e.g. Hartig et al., 2014; Shanahan et al., 2016; Lackey et al., 2018) and this had never been more evident since the global pandemic locked so many of us into restricted areas. I’m very lucky, I’m stuck in a small hamlet in a rural area of Staffordshire.

My walking area

Towards the end of the nineteenth century, walking in the countryside became a popular and inexpensive form of recreation for less well-off city dwellers. The popularity of this activity led to the formation of several local walking or ramblers groups. Access to the countryside was, however, frustrated by the activities of landowners who taking advantage of the Enclosure Act, fenced off their land and often took ramblers to court for trespass.   In 1932, Benny Rothman, of the Young Communist League, frustrated by this, organised a mass trespass of Kinder Scout in the Peak District (regarded by the government as an act of civil disobedience).  As a result this of this and with support from leading politicians of the day, a number of new public rights of way came into being, including, the, to me, iconic Pennine Way. More recently, the Country Side Rights of Way Act of 2000, has reinforced the concept of the right to roam and the UK now allows more access to the countryside than most countries of the World. Note that the Scandinavian countries are even more liberal when it comes to the freedom to roam, something that I was immensely grateful for when doing fieldwork in Finland, as I often found myself stumbling into someone’s back garden while hunting down bird cherry trees in the winter gloaming 🙂 We are fortunate in the UK, that there exists a well-mapped, and in many cases, well sign-posted, 260 000 km of public footpaths and bridleways available to use.

A well maintained example of public footpath ‘furniture’.  The footpath itself in this case has not been reinstated by the farmer and is not very visible.

I suspect that most people, even those that use public footpaths and bridleways are unaware of who is responsible for marinating (left this in so that Emily’s comment makes sense) managing this remarkable network, so here goes.

The Highway Authority (via the local council) and the landowner (or occupier) are the two bodies with the most responsibilities.  Parish councils have some duties, but not all are compulsory and the people who use the paths and bridleways are also expected to follow some simple rules. I’ll go through what these are, one by one. 

Highway Authority

The Highway Authority via the local council must:

keep the surface of the public path network in good repair and control vegetation (other than crops) growing from it maintain bridges over natural water courses, including farm ditches

signpost rights of way from metalled roads and provide additional signs and waymarks as necessary along the route

 protect the public’s right to use and enjoy rights of way

secure the removal of obstructions, including ensuring that paths over cultivated land are reinstated and marked out after they have been disturbed

ensure that there are no intimidating notices that would deter the public from any paths

As far as I can tell, although for example, Staffordshire County Council in which I live, has a department that deals with footpaths and bridleways, councils are  not very proactive in any of the above, relying on members of the public to report any issues. For example, there are several signposts in the village in which I live that are in very poor condition, and yet in the seven years I have lived in it, the only ones that have been repaired are the ones that I have notified the council about. The take home message here is, don’t assume the council will do something about of their own bat, you need to report it, don’t assume that other users will.  Even some of the most used paths in my area have broken stiles and when I logged on to the council site, I found that I was the first person to report them, despite some of them having been in disrepair for a couple of years.

provide a minimum 25% contribution towards any costs incurred by a landowner in maintaining stiles or gates on public rights of way

One of the formerly obstructed and broken stiles that I reported last year. Now much more usable.

Next, the landowners.  According to the Staffordshire County Council web site, “The vast majority of landowners fulfil their legal duties to keep paths on their land open, safe and accessible by keeping routes clear and maintaining stiles and gates, but some don’t. The majority of the 2,000 calls we receive every year is about problems on private paths.”  All I can say is that those of us living where I do are very unlucky in that the local farmers are either not aware of their responsibilities or are deliberately ignoring them. I have listed their duties below with a commentary base donmy personal experiences over the last eighteen months.

The landowner or occupier of land must:

keep rights of way clear of obstructions

Hollow laughter on my part!

cut back vegetation encroaching from the sides and overhanging the path, so that it does not inconvenience the public or prevent the line of the path from being apparent on the ground. (On bridleways, horse riders should be allowed 3 metres [10 feet] of headroom)

Again, not much signs of this – I take a pair of secateurs with me on my walks

ensure that all field-edge public paths are never cultivated

The two examples that I know and use, were both cultivated this year and the previous one

ensure that cross-field footpaths and bridleways are cultivated (i.e. ploughed or disturbed) only when it is not convenient to avoid them and are properly reinstated after disturbance

keep paths clear of crops to ensure that they do not inconvenience users

Not something I have seen in the local area – all reinstatement is done by users walking over the ploughed field. Our local landowners are not exactly the best “stewards of the countryside”.

Two examples of paths not reinstated after cultivation by the farmer – Luckily these are well used by me and others so soon became apparent.

maintain any stiles or gates on a public path in a safe condition

Again, ample evidence that landowners are not very proactive in doing what they are supposed to

ensure that bulls are not kept in a field crossed by a path unless they do not exceed 10 months old or are both not of a recognised dairy breed and are accompanied by cows or heifers

I’m not sure what they mean here by recognised dairy breed.  Do they mean pedigree herds or just recognisable breeds? Many of the fields I crossed last year were stocked with dairy cattle accompanied by bulls. Also, several fields that I had to cross last year were stocked with fair sized bullocks, although they may have been under 10 months

ensure that any warning notices are displayed only when a bull is present in a field

I have seen no warning notices in the local area, not even for electrified fences

never keep any animal which is known to be aggressive in a field to which the public has access

I haven’t been chased yet, followed by curious bullocks, which can be a bit intimidating at times, but not chased.  I do know that some of my neighbours with less agricultural experience than me, avoid using paths when the fields are full of livestock.

ensure that no misleading signs are placed near rights of way that might discourage access.

I am happy to report that I haven’t seen any of these in my area.

Parish councils

Another stakeholder with somewhat fewer duties, but with a very important role to play is youjr local Parish council.  They can do any of the following.

maintain any footpath or bridleway within its area which is maintainable at public expense

I guess this will depend on their budget

erect lighting on any footpath or bridleway. Although the number of public paths likely to require lighting is small, lighting can be important on paths leading to a village or bus stop for example

erect notices, with the consent of the landowner, on or near a footpath or bridleway, warning of local dangers

create new footpaths and bridleways by agreement with the landowner over land in their own and adjoining parishes if satisfied that the creation would be beneficial to all or, any part of, the parish or community

This would be very useful and welcome

signpost and waymark public paths on behalf of, and with the consent of the highway authority. A highway authority can give permission for other persons such as parish councils to erect and maintain signposts on its behalf

Again this would be very useful and welcome in our area – I am, however, not sure if their budget could cover it.

provide seats and shelters at the side of public paths

These would be very welcome – so far none in our immediate area 🙂

You the user

Finally what about me and other users? As a user of public rights of way you have a duty to treat the pathways and surroundings with respect.

“The public’s right over a highway is a right of passage. Path users must keep strictly to the line of the path and must not loiter.

This one is a bit odd, does it mean that you shouldn’t have a picnic sitting on the actual path or stand still at a particular viewpoint? 

On public rights of way, you can:

Take a pram, pushchair or wheelchair if practical

Take a dog (on a lead or under close control)

Dog owners are one of my bête noires.  Thankfully most that I meet, either have their dogs on a lead or if not, hurriedly put one on. There are, however, a few whose definition of under close control, differs markedly for mine.  I don’t consider dogs that rush up and jump up at you as being under control, no matter how much their owner tells you they are just being friendly. That also goes for those dogs that hurtle towards you and then run round and round you barking.  It might also be nice if dog owners didn’t let their dogs defecate on the footpath but a good distance away from it.  Some people bag it up, which as the bags are plastic is not that environmentally friendly, especially if they don’t actually take it home with them.

I often wonder about dog owners 😦

Take a short, reasonable detour to get round any illegal obstruction.”

Sometimes this latter instruction is not that easy especially as in one case the farmer had blocked the stile, with barbed wire so I had to try and find another way to regain the path which meant walking across some of his crops.



Farm gate obscura
Once, open and shut daily,
Now long forgotten
 

I have now found eight of these – while they may not have been public rights of way, they did once allow access to the fields.  They are also, indicators of the way in which over the last fifty or sixty years, fields have been enlarged by the removal of interior hedges to cater for ever larger farm machinery.

Hedgerow remnants

Lines of trees such as those in the middle of fields are usually an indicator that there was once a hedge and that two fields have been combined into one larger field – hence the presence of defunct gates hidden inside roadside hedges.

Those gates that have survived have then had to be enlarged to cater for the larger machinery.

What can you do to help?

The UK government has set a deadline of 1 January 2026 for all historic paths to be registered for inclusion on official maps. You, as a footpath user can use existing paths and petition your local Parish Council or County Council for new paths to be registered. Very importantly, make sure that you report obstructions to existing paths when you come across them.  Don’t expect others to do so, the more of us who report blocked paths and broken stiles, the more chance there is that they will be unblocked and repaired. Also go to your local council web site and download the footpath map of your local area.  You will be surprised at how many there are, and how many have been hidden by the landowners. We need to make sure that these hidden gems are revealed.

If you want to protect and enhance our public footpath network, please consider joining the Slow Ways project, their aim is to create a network of walking routes that connect all of Great Britain’s towns and cities as well as thousands of villages. You can find out more here.

Enough writing, time to get out and do some walking.

References

Hartig, T., Mitchell, R., de Vries, S. & Frumkin, H. (2014) Nature and health, Annual Review of Public Health, 35, 207-228.

Hey, D. (2011). “Kinder Scout and the Legend of Mass Trespass” (PDF). Agricultural History Review59, 199-216.

Lackey, N.Q., Tysor, D.A., McNay, G.D., Joyner, L., Baker, K.H. & Hodge, C. (2019) Mental health benefits of nature-based recreation: a systematic review, Annals of Leisure Research,

Shanahan, D., Bush, R., Gaston, K., Lin, B.B., Dean, J., Barber, E. & Fuller, R.A. (2016) Health benefits from Nature experiences depend on dose. Scientific Reports, 6, 28551

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Why using an expert to review a paper is sometimes a bad thing

I have written about the importance and role of paper reviewers before, but a recent experience has prompted me to put fingers to keyboard yet again. As an Editor, my practice when choosing referees is to invite, whenever possible, an early career researcher (ECR) and a well-established expert in the field. My reasoning behind this being that the ECR will be very au fait with the current literature and techniques (statistical and experimental), and very likely to do the job quickly. The ancient professor old fogey well established expert, may take longer to respond, but will definitely know the early literature and be in a good position to judge the novelty of the work and point out if the wheel is being reinvented (Leather, 2004).

Until recently I thought that this was a fool-proof approach, but then I had the opportunity to referee a paper right up my street; the study organism was the subject of my PhD and I have continued working with it (albeit recently, mainly via PhD and MSc students) for the last forty years.  The paper described a well-designed and analysed experiment, and, miracle of miracles, cited me all the relevant literature.  I had only a few minor points and enthusiastically recommended publication with only minor revision.  I was a bit surprised when I received notice of the journal’s decision to see that they had given the author a major revision. On reading the other reviewer’s report, (the practice of copying the reviewer’s reports to each reviewer is a fantastic service), I realised why.

Having being involved with the topic for a life-time, I knew exactly what the author had done and what their rationale was, so hadn’t picked up on the fact that some of the methodology and whys and wherefores would be somewhat opaque to non-experts.  This is of course why we get (or should) our colleagues to read our papers before we submit them.  Familiarity doesn’t necessarily breed contempt, but it can certainly lead to a false sense of how niche one’s research area actually is.

I will, despite this, still continue to use well-established experts to review papers but will try not to weight their opinions more highly than those of the ECRs. As for me, I will, in future be looking much more critically at the approaches and rationale of papers that deal with subjects very close to my heart. Alternatively, I could just give up reviewing papers 🙂

Reference

Leather, S.R. (2004) Reinventing the wheel – on the dangers of taxon parochialism and shallow reference trawling! Basic and Applied Ecology, 5, 309-311.

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The Natural World in Haiku Form – volume 4

Thanks to covid and cancer, I spent most of last year (2020) away from the campus.  Luckily, I live in a very rural area so I was able to do a lot of walking and interacting with Nature.  This year’s collection of haikus are thus geographically constrained.  I hope that some of them will strike a chord with some of you.

Memories

Oak, standing alone

Hoarding Nature’s memories,

Safe, beneath her bark.

February 6th 2020 Sutton

Nature prevails

Stalwart oak still stands.

Despite lightning’s flashing bolt

Nature will prevail

15 April 2020 Forton

Sentry duty

Oaken sentinels;

marking the perimeter

of the farmer’s field

Sutton 18th May 2020

Inner strength

Pointing at the sky

Twin stags, hoarding resources

Not ready to die

1st June 2020 Sutton

Fresh air

Busy buzzing bees
Old hedgerow oaks in a row
Loud Lapwings mewing

25th March 2020 Sutton

Covid-19

Together apart,

Socially distancing pines,

A sign of our times

24th March 2020 Sutton

Insect Heaven

Yellow furze crowned slope

basking in April’s warm sun.

Heaven for insects

22nd April 2020 Oulton by Sutton

Dandelions

Spherical fluffy

timely seed distributing,

dandelion clocks

4th May 2020 Sutton

Welcome trespassers

A part but apart,

encroaching the wheat desert;

delightful colour

16th August 2020 Sutton

Spring flush

Spring, pinkly blushing,

but soon to be clipped and hacked

By the groundsman’s shears.

Harper Adams 16th March 2020

Farmscape

Green ivy, brown thorn
frame the farmer’s verdant fields;
awaiting spring’s warmth

Sutton 28th March 2020

Sloe gin beckons

Blackthorn, lustrous white

brightening up our spring hedges;

later on, sloe gin

Sutton 10th April 2020

Wrekin view

Bird, high in the sky

Soars above the farmer’s fields;

Views Hazy Wrekin

Sutton April 3rd 2020

Grey

Sultry leaden sky.

Oh for a clap of thunder

To bring the rain down

May 26th 2020 Sutton

Wonder

Blue, glimpsed behind

the cloud rippled firmament.

A wondrous beauty

March 31st 2020 Sutton

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Pick & Mix 53 – pandemics, thanotosis, cats, going to work when you shouldn’t, salted sloes, dangerous grapefruit, butterflies, rapid evolution in flowers and Georgina Mace

Pandemics are not just for animals – trees are suffering too

How do you know when an insect is dead?

Environmental protection laws allow for harm to the environment. For far too long, harm to “others” has only really considered humans. The link to the original paper is here

When it comes to letting cats out it turns out that there are five types of cat owner ranging from the concerned protector to the laissez-faire landlord

When being there costs the economy more than not being there – presenteeism

Some plants are changing the ultraviolet profiles of their flowers to make sure that pollinators can still find them despite climate change

If you are interested in how appearance dates for UK butterfly species have changed since 1976, then here are the data

Most people have heard about sloe gin, but have you ever tried salt-fermented sloes?  Here is a recipe from Jeff Ollerton, perhaps better known as a pollinator ecologist, but also not afraid to think outside the box J

All about citrus and especially why grapefruit and whatever medication you are on, might not mix well

Very nice obituary about my former colleague Georgina Mace – conservation scientists extraordinaire

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Spore shedding aphids

If you were in the European silkworm business two or three hundred years ago the last thing you wanted to find in your colony were stiff dead caterpillars. Worse still would be if when you picked them up and bent them, they snapped in half and revealed a solid white or green interior, giving them the appearance of a stick of chalk. Horror stricken you realise that your beloved silkworms have been struck down by white or green muscardine disease, or if you were an Italian, calcino; in both cases the name refers to the chalk like appearance of the inside of the stricken larvae.  By the middle of the 19th century the combined effects of the industrial revolution, the revival of the Japanese silk industry and an epidemic of viral and fungal diseases had pretty much shut down the European silk industry (Federico, 1997). We now know that the muscardine diseases are caused by the entompathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisipoliae, although this was not realised until the early part of the 19th Century when the Italian naturalist Agostino Bassi discovered their true nature.

So what about the aphids I hear you asking? I have written earlier about the attacks that aphids have to suffer from predators and parasitoids, but that is not all with which they have to contend.  Fungal diseases (Dean &Wilding, 1973; Rabasse et al., 1982; Aqueel & Leather, 2013) also attack aphids in the same way that they attack most other insects.  In the case of aphids, it is not one of the muscardines, instead they are attacked by a number of fungi belonging to the Entomophthoraceae. The first member of this family to be recognised as a fungus was named Empusa musca (now Entomophthora muscae) by Charles de Geer in 1782 (Cohn, 1855). As the name suggests, it attacks house flies. There are, however, a number of different entomopathogenic fungi that specialise in attacking aphids, Erynia neoaphidis, and other members of the Entomophtoraceae, being the most commonly seen (Dean & Wilding,

An aphid unfortunate enough to encounter an insect infecting fungal spore and lacking the appropriate symbionts (Parker et al., 2013) is very likely to suffer a slow and lingering death as the fungal mycelia proliferate within its body.

Aphid infected by Pandora (Erynia) neopahidis https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pandora_neoaphidis.jpg

Pandora neoaphidis infected pea aphids (photo Tom Pope)

On landing on a susceptible aphid, the fungal spore germinates and the germ tube penetrates the aphid, either directly through the cuticle or via a nearby spiracle.  Unlike those other invidious invaders of aphids, the parasitoids, entomopathogenic fungi need very specific environmental conditions to successfully colonise their aphid hosts. The damper the better, and if the aphid is surrounded by liquid water the more likely the fungus is to be able to effect an entry (Wilding, 1969; Dean & Wilding, 1973).  More than a century ago Paul Hayhurst of Harvard University noticed that galls of the Chenopodium aphid, Hayhurstia atriplicis (then known as Aphis atriplicis) that were ruptured and had allowed water in, had a much higher incidence of diseased aphids than the intact galls (Hayhurst, 1909). Another more recent indication of this dependence on damp conditions is a mention of a high incidence of Pandora neoaphidis (described as Empusa aphidis) on Schizolachnus pini-radiatae being associated with higher than average rainfall (Grobler, 1962). 

The earliest experiment involving aphid specific entompathogenic fungi that I have been able to find is from the latter half of the 19th Century (Houghton & Phillips, 1885). 

“I placed some infected aphides under a glass with healthy specimens from my garden-beans and in a short time these became similarly covered with the same red-coloured fungoid growth. The n*****s took the scarlet fever and died.”

Their conclusion was that it was an Entomopthora species, perhaps related to, if not, E. planchoniana.

Although fungal pathogens have been shown to be able to reduce aphid populations in the field (Fluke*, 1925; Grobler et al., 1962; Plantegenest et al., 2001), their effectiveness as biological control agents on their own is variable and unpredictable (Milner, 1997).  Most often, they are used either as biopesticides, or in conjunction with parasitoids and predators (e.g. Milner, 1997; Aqueel & Leather, 2013). One of the problems that entompathogenic fungi have is ‘finding’ their hosts.  While it is known that entompathogenic fungi, as with entomopathogenic viruses, affect the behaviour of many insect that they attack (Hughes et al., 2011), by making them move to locations on their host plant where they are more likely to infect their kin, as far as I know, there is only one record of this for aphids (Harper, 1958).  Surely a productive avenue of research to follow? That said, these clever fungi have another option up their mycelial sleeves.  They are, like other fungi, able to discharge their spores explosively.  Erynia neopahidis can project its spores more than 3mm vertically and more than 5 mm horizontally (Hemmati et al., 2001). This may seem a tiny distance to you and me, but the spores only need to get further than 2 mm to get air borne and move on to other plants or plant parts.  It might be a leap into the unknown but it seems to work out all right for the fungi 🙂

References

Aqueel, M.A. & Leather, S.R. (2013) Virulence of Verticillium lecanii (Z.) against cereal aphids; does timing of infection affect the performance of parasitoids and predators? Pest Management Science, 69, 493-498.

Cohn, F. (1855) Empusa muscae und die Krankeit der Stubenfliegen  Nova acta Academiae

Caesareae Leopoldino-Carolinae Germanicae Naturae Curiosorum, 25, 301-360

Dean, G.J. & Wilding, N. (1973) Infection of cereal aphids by the fungus Entomophthora. Annals of Applied Biology, 74, 133-138.

Federico, G. (1997 ) An Economic History of the Silk Industry, 1830-1930. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Fluke, C.L. (1925) Natural enemies of the pa aphid (Illinoia pisi Kalt.); their abundance and distribution in Wisconsin.  Journal of Economic Entomology, 18, 612-616.

Grobler, J.H., MacLeod, D.M. & Delyzer, A.J. (1962) The fungus Empusa aphidis Hoffman parasitic on the wooly pine needle aphid, Schizolachnus pini-radiatae (Davidson). Canadian Entomologist, 94, 46-49.

Harper, A.M. (1958) Notes on behaviour of Pemphigus betae Doane (Homoptera: Aphididae) Infected with Entomophthora aphidis Hoffm. Canadian Entomologist, 90, 439-440.

Hayhurst, P. (1909) Observations on a gall aphid (Aphis atriplicis L.). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 2, 88-100.

Hemmati, F., Pell, J.K., McCartney, H.A., Clark, S.J. & Deadman, M.L. (2001) Conidial discharge in the aphid pathogen Erynia neoaphidis. Mycological Research, 105, 715-722.

Hughes, D.P., Andersen, S.B., Hywel-Jones, N.L. , Himaman, W., Billen, J. & Boomsma, J. (2011) Behavioral mechanisms and morphological symptoms of zombie ants dying from fungal infection. BMC Ecology, 11, 13.

Milner, R.J. (1997) Prospects for biopesticides fro aphid control. Entomophaga, 42, 227-239.

Parker, B.J., Spragg, C.J., Altincicek, B. & Gerardo, N.M. (2013) Symbiont-mediated protection against fungal pathogens in pea aphids: a role for pathogen specificity. Applied & Environmental Microbiology, 79, 2455-2458.

Plantegenest, M., Pierre, J.S., Dedryver, C.A. & Kindlmann, P. (2001) Assessment of the relative impact of different natural enemies on population dynamics of the grain aphid Sitobion avenae in the field. Ecological Entomology, 26, 404-410.

Rabasse, J.M., Dedryver, C.A., Molionari, J. & Lafont, J.P. (1982) Facteurs de limitation des populations d’Aphis fabae dans l’Ouest de la France 4. Nouvelles donnees sur le deroulement des epizooties entomophtoracees sur feverole de printemps. Entomophaga, 27, 39-53.

Roditakis, E., Couzin, J.D., K., B., Franks, N.R. & Charnley, R.K. (2000) Improving secondary pick up of insect fungal pathogen conidia by manipulating host behaviour. Annals of Applied Biology, 137, 329-335.

Wilding, N. (1969) Effect of humidity on the sporulation of Entomophthora aphidis and E. thaxteriana. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 53, 126-130.

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Time of year determines some, but not all, views of my blog posts

I was going to format this post as a spoof Nature communication, but not being as skilled as our students, who turn out excellently formatted mock papers for their assignments, decided not to. I did, however, go for a typical Nature title 🙂

The other day when I was looking at my blog stats I clicked on the view post stats button next to my most read post of the day, Not all aphids are vegans*, and was amused enough by the strong seasonal dynamics shown to post it on Twitter.

Not all aphids are vegans – strong seasonal dynamics

As you can see, the peaks and troughs of views strongly follow the times of year that aphids are present and absent.

As regular readers of my blog will know, I am a bit of an aphidophile. It is kind of hard to miss if I’m honest, but then aphids are fantastic and awesome, so you will get no apologies from me for loving them and writing, or talking about them whenever I get the chance to do so.

That said, not all my posts are about aphids, insects yes, but I do write about other things too, including entomological equipment, classic papers and teaching matters, and sometimes about my holidays 🙂

Given the strong correlation between aphid life cycle timing and visits to the post about biting aphids, I wondered how my other aphid posts stacked up in terms of seasonal viewing.

Aphid life cycles – bizarre, complex or what?

Somewhat surprisingly, well to me at least, the post about aphid life cycles did not show very strong seasonal dynamics, although April, when aphids start to become active, did, at the beginning of the post’s life, show a bit of a peak of interest, but has since broken down completely.  Another season aspect of aphid biology is wing formation. This is usually associated with late spring and early summer (Dixon, 1973, 1976), and in this case, the viewing history fitted appropriately.

Not all aphids have wings – seasonally appropriate

 

What about the other end of the year, autumn and winter?  As expected, my post about aphid overwintering showed the reverse pattern to the other aphid posts, people wanted to read about aphid overwintering as winter appraoched.

A Winter’s Tale – aphid overwintering

Aphid posts, as predicted, show a correlation (OK, not tested) with the time of year associated with the appropriate part of the life cycle.  We would therefore expect that posts that are more general would show no marked seasonality in their popularity. To test this I looked at first, my posts that deal with entomological equipment, pan traps, clip cages and the poster and then at two posts that fit into the teaching category.  Staring with the Pan trap, a very basic and commonly used piece of field equipment, despite a slight expectation on my part that there might be a spring peak (after all, that is when insects start flying) there was no pattern that I could see.

The pan trap – disappointingly no pattern

 

Nest I looked at the Pooter, an essential bit of general entomological kit (Leather, 2015) used by entomologists of all types. Given that this is used in both the laboratory and the field, I didn’t really expect to see any pattern jumping out at me.  I wasn’t disappointed although if you look very quickly, and not too closely, it is just about possible top convince yourself that there is an increase in views during the summer, which would fit with the general increase in insects caught in nets.

The Pooter – perhaps a slight tendency for views to increase in mid-summer

 

Next, back to aphids, this time a piece of kit that is almost, but not entirely, confined to aphidologists (Macgillivray & Anderson, 1957).  My expectation here, was that given that clip cages are almost always used in laboratories or glasshouses, that there would be absolutely no pattern in the viewing figures. Sure enough, that was the outcome.

The clip cage – no discernible patterns

Finally, the two teaching posts, first my tribute to Southwood’s classic species-area paper (Southwood, 1961).  I know that this post is used for undergraduate teaching at one university, so given the regularity of university timetabling, might have a chance of  showing a pattern;  It didn’t.

Southwood (1961) – the number of insect species associated with various trees – no pattern

Finally, a post that has attracted a modicum of attention over the years, all about what to expect in a PhD viva.  My hypothesis for this, given that most PhD projects start at the beginning of the academic year and run for four or five years before submission, was that if there was going to be an annual peak in views that it would be between October and January.  To save you the troubkle of squinting at the graph, there was no pattern.

Are PhD examiners really ogres? – no consistent peak

In conclusion, aphid posts tend to show viewing patterns consistent with the time of year and life cycle stage, other, more general posts show absolutely no pattern.

 

References

Dixon, A.F.G. (1973) Biology of Aphids. Edward Arnold, London.

Dixon, A.F.G. (1976) Reproductive strategies of the alate morphs of the bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi. Journal of Animal Ecology, 45, 817-830.

Leather, S.R. (2015) An entomological classic – the Pooter or insect aspirator. British Journal of Entomology & Natural History, 28, 52-54.

MacGillivray, M.E. & Anderson, G.B. (1957) Three useful insect cages. Canadian Entomologist, 89, 43-46.

Southwood, T.R.E. (1961) The number of species of insect associated with various trees. Journal of Animal Ecology, 30, 1-8.

 

 

 

 

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An unintended consequence – Maris Huntsman: A great choice for entomological careers but not so good for farmers

I could have used Sod’s Law or Murphy’s Law as the lead in for this article, but as you will see (if you keep on reading), this story isn’t all doom and gloom 😊. During the 1960s, cereal growers in the UK and on mainland Europe, were subjected to onslaughts on two fronts, yellow rust* ((Puccinia striiformis) (Doling & Doodson, 1968) and cereal aphids (Fletcher & Bardner, 1969; Kolbe, 1969).  Although cereal aphids had been a sporadic problem in Europe for several decades previously (Kolbe, 1969,1973; Rautapää, 1976) and even earlier than that (e.g. Marsham, 1798), 1968 was an exceptional year for them (Fletcher & Bardner, 1969; Kolbe, 1969).  Presaging  Richard Root’s seminal work on crop apparency and pest occurrence, the Dutch agronomist Willem Feekes predicted that changes in agricultural practice, in particular cereal production, would lead to increased pest and disease problems (Feekes, 1967). This was further emphasised by Wilhelm Kolbe of Bayer, who suggested that the big increase in cereal production in Europe between 1950 and 1970 and the switch from oats to wheat was the cause of the cereal aphid problem (Kolbe, 1973).   Similarly, in the UK, where oats were 51% of the cereal crop in 1930, they had fallen to 11% by 1965 (Marks & Britton, 1989).

Cereal production UK

The shift in cereal crops may indeed have been a contributory factor, but I think, certainly in the UK, that we can add another factor to the equation. Over at Maris Lane**, where the Plant Breeding Institute was based at Trumpington, Cambridge, a new variety of wheat, Maris Huntsman, with good resistance to both powdery mildew and yellow rust (Ruckenbauer, 1975) had been developed and introduced as a recommended variety to farmers in 1972 (Hughes & Bodden, 1978).  By 1977 it accounted for almost 40% of the wheat sold in the UK (Hughes & Bodden, 1978), although a mere two years later, it had fallen to just over 20% (Johnson, 1992).  Based at Trumpington, entomologist Henry Lowe, had, since the late1960s been investigating the resistance of crop plants to aphids, first beans (e.g. Lowe, 1968) was at the time, investigating the resistance of varieties of wheat to aphids (Lowe, 1978, 1980). He found, as one might expect that not all cereal species and varieties were equally susceptible to aphids, and if given a free choice, the grain aphid Sitobion avenae, showed a preference for Maris Huntsman.

So what does this have to do with launching the careers of a couple of dozen entomologists? Well, back in the late 1960s Tony Dixon, then based in Glasgow, got interested in the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi  (Dixon, 1971; Dixon & Glen, 1971), a minor pest of cereals in the UK, mainly because of its great ability to transmit Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus (Watson & Mulligan, 1960. In those countries, such as Finland and Sweden, where spring sown cereals are the norm, it is a pest in its own right, able to cause yield reduction without the help of a virus (Leather et al., 1989). Tony moved to the University of East Anglia as Professor of Ecology in 1975 and started his new career there by appointing six new PhD students. Three of these were looking at aspects of cereal aphid ecology, Allan Watt researching the biology of S. avenae and Metoplophium dirhodum, Ian McLean looking at the predators and Nick Carter modelling their populations in order to develop a forecasting system.  Research groups at Imperial College and at the University of Southampton also began to work on the problem.  Fortuitously although cereal aphid numbers had fallen since the  

Numbers of Sitobion avenae caught in the Brooms Barn suction trap (data from Watson & Carter, 1983)

populations picked up in 1974 and then rose to outbreak levels again in 1976, just as the new PhD students started their field work. I joined the group in 1977 to work on R. padi, followed in subsequent years by Keith Walters (now a colleague at Harper Adams University), John Chroston, Sarah Gardner, Nigel Thornback, Ali Fraser, Shirley Watson, Trevor Acreman, Dave Dent, and after I left for pastures new, Alvin Helden (now Head of School at Anglia Ruskin University). Similar numbers of students were appointed at Southampton, including Nick Sotherton, now Director of Research at the Game and Wildlife Conservation Trust.  There were also groups started at Imperial College and the University of Reading. There was a certain element of rivalry between the groups, Steve Wratten for example, was an ex-student of Tony’s and there was a certain degree of animosity between Roy Taylor (of Taylor’s Power Law fame) at Rothamsted and Tony Dixon, we had mini-conferences to exchange findings and generally got on well.  Allan Watt for example went to work for Steve Wratten as a post-doc before moving up to Scotland to work on the pine beauty moth alongside me.  It was a great time to be working on aphids and I think we all benefitted from the experience and I for one, am very grateful to the plant breeders for developing a  variety of wheat, that although resistant to rust and powdery mildew, is very attractive to the grain aphid 🙂

Having fun in a Norfolk cereal field; me, Allan Watt and Ian McLean (Nick Carter had the good sense to stand behind the camera).

You may be wondering why I penned this reminiscence. Well, last year, my colleague Tom Pope and I were discussing cereal aphids at coffee time (as you do), and I mentioned how Maris Huntsman had launched my career.  It just so happened that Tom had access to old, ancient and modern varieties of cereals to hand and a final year project student keen on aphids so it doesn’t take a genius to guess what happened next 🙂

Host preferences of Sitobion avenae (Dan Hawes & Tom Pope). Can you guess which is Maris Huntsman?

So, Maris Huntsman, a great choice for attracting aphids and producing entomologists 🙂 and of course a great big vote of thanks to the PBI

 

References

Dean, G.J.W. & Luuring, B.B. (1970) Distribution of aphids on cereal crops. Annals of Applied Biology, 66, 485-496.

Dixon, A.F.G. (1971) The life cycle and host preferences of the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L) and its bearing on the theory of host alternation in aphids. Annals of Applied Biology, 68, 135-147.

Dixon, A.F.G. & Glen, D.M. (1971) Morph determination in the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L). Annals of Applied Biology, 68, 11-21.

Doling, D.A. & Doodson, J.K. (1968) The effect of yellow rust on the yield of spring and winter wheat. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 51, 427-434.

Feekes, W. (1967) Phytopathological consequences of changing agricultural methods. II Cereals. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 73 Supplement 1, 97-115.

Fletcher, K.E. & Bardner, R. (1969) Cereal aphids on wheat. Report of the Rothamsted Experimental Station 1968, 200-201.

Hughes, W. G., & Bodden, J. J. (1978). An assessment of the production and performance of F1 hybrid wheats based on Triticum timopheevi cytoplasm. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 53, 219–228.

Janson, H.W. (1959) Aphids on cereals and grasses in 1957. Plant Pathology, 8, 29.

Johnson R. (1992) Past, present and future opportunities in breeding for disease resistance, with examples from wheat. [In] Johnson R., Jellis G.J. (eds) Breeding for Disease Resistance. Developments in Plant Pathology, vol 1. Springer, Dordrecht

Kolbe, W. (1969) Studies on the occurrence of different aphid species as the cause of cereal yield and quality. Pflanzenschutz Nachrichten Bayer, 22, 171-204.

Kolbe, W. (1973) Studies on the occurrence of cereal aphids and the effect of feedingdamage on yields in relation. Pflanzenschutz Nachrichten Bayer, 26, 396-410.

Latteur, G. (1971) Evolution des populations aphidiennes sur froments d’hiver.  Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 36, 928-939.

Leather, S.R., Walters, K.F.A., & Dixon, A.F.G. (1989) Factors determining the pest status of the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in Europe: a study and review. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 79, 345-360.

Leather, S.R., Carter, N., Walters, K.F.A., Chroston, J.R., Thornback, N., Gardner, S.M., & Watson, S.J. (1984) Epidemiology of cereal aphids on winter wheat in Norfolk, 1979-1981. Journal of Applied Ecology, 21, 103-114.

Lowe, HJ.J.B. (1967) Interspecific differences in the biology of aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) on leaves of Vicia faba I. Feeding behaviour. Entomologia experimentalis et applicata, 10, 347-357.

Lowe, H.J.B. (1974) Effects of Metopolophium dirhodum on Spring wheat in the glasshouse.  Plant Pathology, 23, 136-140.

Lowe, H.J.B. (1978) Detection of resistance to aphids in cereals.  Annals of Applied Biology, 88, 401-406.

Lowe, H.J.B. (1980) Resistance to aphids in immature wheat and barley. Annals of Applied Biology, 95, 129-135.

Macer, R.C.F. (1972) The resistance of cereals to yellow rust and its exploitation by plant breeding.  Proceedings of the Royal Society London B., 181, 281-301.

Marks, H.F. & Britton, D.K. (1989)  A Hundred  Years of British Food and Farming: A Statistical Survey. Taylor & Francis.

Marsham, T. (1798) Further observations on the wheat insect, in a letter to the Rev. Samuel Goodenough, L.L.D. F.R.S. Tr.L.S. Transactions of the Linnaean Society London, 4, 224-229.

Rautapää, J. (1976) Population dynamics of cereal aphids and method of predicting population trends. Annales Agriculturae Fenniae, 15, 272-293.

Rogerson, J.P. (1947) The oat-bird cherry aphis Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) and comparison with R. crataegellum Theo. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 38, 157-176.

Ruckenbauer, P.  (19 75) Photosynthetic and translocation pattern in contrasting winter wheat varieties. Annals of Applied Biology, 79, 351-359.

Watosn, M.A. & Mulligan, T. (1960) The manner of transmission of some Barley Yellow‐Dwarf Viruses by different aphid species. Annals of Applied Biology, 48, 711-720.

Watson, S.J. & Carter, N. (1983) Weather and modelling cereal aphid populations in Norfolk (UK). EPPO Bulletin, 13, 223-227.

Zayed, Y. & Loft, P. (2019) Agriculture: Historical Statistics. House of Commons Briefing paper 3339

 

*Yellow rust is still a  still a major problem for cereal growers worldwide

**an address that is immortalised in the names of several cultivars of crops developed by the PBI

 

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Omphaloskepsis – navel gazing in the time of Covid-19

Advance warning – there is not much science or entomology in this one, although it could be a welcome respite from Covid-19 😊

I am assured that they are gazing at their navels

A couple of days ago I was scrolling through my ‘Blogs to write’ file, clicking on titles that caught my fancy, when I came across this one that I thought looked interesting – Meaningful numbers, with a file date of almost exactly 4 years ago.

What surprises lurk inside this file?

I wondered what I was thinking about at the time so opened the file.  Imagine my disappointment when this was revealed 😊

Nothing but the title, not even a picture to help jog my memory!

So, I was none the wiser.  I knew it wasn’t about one of my pet bugbears; journals that use numbered references, because that has its own file, in fact two files, because I seem to have started writing it twice 😊 I guess an indication of how much the practice irritates me. As a referee it makes it so much more difficult to check if the authors have cited the relevant literature. 😦

I hate this so much! It goes against my sense of order, literally speaking of course 😊

 It wasn’t about how many times the word insect featured as a worldwide search term in Google Trends, although looking at the graph it is striking that the peak is in June/July, the Northern Hemisphere summer.

Worldwide Google Trends for the search term ‘insect’

 

Staying with insects, (OK there is some tangential entomology in this piece), could I have been meaning to write something about how many insects species there are, given that the estimates range from Terry Erwin’s gloriously possibly over the top estimate of 30 000 000 (Erwin, 1983) to Ian Hodkinson’s 2-3 000 000, that I consider to be very conservative indeed, with Camilo Mora and colleagues oddly calculated 9 000 000 in between.   Or, could it refer to my ten-year data aphid data sets from Scotland, still waiting to be transferred transfer from these battered notebooks to an Excel spreadsheet?

Aphid data, not meaningful until it makes it to a spreadsheet?

Certainly, they contain a lot of numbers but are they meaningful? They haven’t even made it into my Data I am never going to publish series 😊

In desperation I Googled the phrase ‘meaningful numbers’ and ended up, via this piece by Donald Byrd,

http://homes.sice.indiana.edu/donbyrd/Teach/Math/MeaningfulNumbers+SignificantFigures.pdf

on the Wikipedia page about significant figures, which, although the habit that many undergraduates have of reporting their statistical output to the millionth decimal place, is one of my other pet bugbears, was probably not what I had intended to write about, or was it?

I guess we’ll never know what the original title was all about, but on the plus side, I now have a few more ideas to turn into blogs 😊

 

References

Erwin, T.L. (1983) Tropical forest canopies: the last biotic frontier. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America, 29, 14-19.

Hodkinson, I.D. & Casson, D. (1991) A lesser predilection for bugs: Hemiptera (Insecta) diversity in tropical rain forests. Biological Journal of the Linnaean Society, 43, 101-109.

Mora, C., Tittensor, D.P., Adl, S., Simpson, A.G.B., & Worm, B. (2011) How many species are there on earth and in the ocean? PloS Biology, 9(8):, e1001127.doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001127.

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The Natural World in Haiku Form – Volume 3

In what is now a tradition, this is my third collection after all, I have gathered together all the haikus I have written and tweeted over the last  year and present them here for light relief.

 

Plants and seasons

 

Waterside willows,

weeping greenly in the sun.

 Spring is with us now

Harper Adams 20 March 2019

 

Old school entomology

 

Fragrantly flowered

Prunus laurocerasus;

Insect killing jars

Harper Adams 10th April 2019

 

Hedgerow bounty

 

Green and berry red,

Autumn bounty in the hedge

Feeds winter wildlife

Harper Adams September 10th 2019

 

Recycling

 

Autumnal fungi

Springing forth through soft and hard.

From death, new life fruits

Harper Adams September 25th 2019

 

Sorbus green, Sorbus red

 

Sorbus on the turn

Autumn colours on the way

summon falling leaves

Harper Adams October 14th 2019

 

 

Languedoc autumn

 

Oaks with leaves unshed,

Acorns crunching underfoot.

Autumn in Languedoc

Vinca 3rd November 2019

 

Winter icumen in

 

Stark against the sky

Field maples stripped of their leaves

Herald winter’s chill

Sutton 29 November 2019

 

Brown Flutterby

 

Brown leaf flutters by

Heading downward from the sky.

Landing, with a sigh.

January 11th 2019 Vinca

 

Entomology

 

Honeydew

 

As sweet as honey,

Aphid poo; feeds bees, wasps, ants,

Also flies and plants

Harper Adams 2th April 2019

 

Protected

 

Black attendant ants

protect these aphids on broom;

paid in honeydew

Vinca 3rd June 2019

 

Agapanthia villosoviridescens

 

Leisurely flying

and easily grasped by hand.

Now, safely set free 🙂

Harper Adams University

27 June 2019

 

Weather

 

Rain

 

Rain and yet more rain.

Puddling in yards, splashed by cars.

Will it ever stop?

June 12th 2019 Harper Adams University

 

Scented rain

 

A drop of light rain

is just enough, to bring forth

the scent of hawthorn

 

or alternatively

 

A drop of light rain;

and then the scent of hawthorn

floats fragrantly by

Harper Adams 24th April 2019

 

Vertebrates

 

A plurality of sheep

 

Sheep, sheep, sheep, sheep, sheep

Done chomping, now digesting

Sleepy sheep, sheep sleep.

7th May 2019

Harper Adams University

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The Roundabout Review 2019 – navel gazing again

Welcome to my, now very, very definitely, traditional review of the past year.

A new roundabout – Jennett’s Park, Bracknell – I have no idea what it is meant to signify

 

Impact and reach

I have continued to post at about ten-day intervals; this is my 273rd  post.  As I wrote last year, there never seems to any difficulty in coming up with ideas to write about; the problem is more in deciding which one to use and when.  As happened last year, some of my blogs have, albeit in slightly modified forms, made it into print (Cardoso & Leather, 2019).

Many of you remain lukewarm about the idea that social media has a place in science. I would, however, ask you to think again and if you need any more convincing, read this paper that very clearly demonstrates the benefits arising from such interactions (Côté & Darling, 2018); evidence that science communication via social media is a very worthwhile use of our time. Highlights of the year included a joint blog with Stephen Heard, about paper titles. Semi-related to my Blogging and Tweeting are my other forms of science communication, giving talks and helping at outreach events, such as the Big Bang Fair, which continue unabated.  I also had three Skype a Scientist dates this year, two with schools in the USA and one with a school in Switzerland.  I really enjoyed the experience and hope that the pupils were as pleased as I was. If you have not come across this scheme, check them out here.

My blog had visitors from 179 countries (181 last year, 165 in 2017, 174 in 2016 and 150 in 2015), so only another 16 to go to achieve total global domination 😊  My blog received 63 710 views (54 300 last year,  40 682 in 2017,  34 036 in 2016; 29 385 in 2015). As with last year, most views came from the USA, with views from India holding on to 4th place and Nigeria entering the top ten for the first time.

Top ten countries for views

Top reads

My top post (excluding my home page) in 2019 was the same as last year, one of my aphid posts,  A Winter’s Tale – Aphid Overwintering, (with almost 200 more reads this year than last, 4108 to be precise) although there may have been some disappointment felt by those who were hoping to find a reference to Shakespeare’s play or the song by Queen. It is now my all-time winner with just over 13 000 views, with Not All Aphids are Vegans with over 11 000 views still maintaining an honourable second place.  My top ten posts continue to be either about aphids or entomological techniques/equipment, which I guess means that I am filling an entomological niche. Aptly, my two posts about the loss of insects made it into the top ten this year.

A Winter’s Tale – aphid overwintering 4,108
Not all aphids are vegans 2,458
“Insectageddon” – bigger headlines, more hype, but where’s the funding? 1,829
Aphid life cycles – bizaare, complex or what? 1,762
Meat eating moths 1,226
Entomological Classics – The Pooter or Insect Aspirator 1,217
Not Jiminy Cricket but Gregory Grasshopper – someone ought to tell Walt 1,158
Ten papers that shook my world – watching empty islands fill up – Simberloff & Wilson (1969) 1,089
Entomological classics – the sweep net 1,052
Global Insect Extinction – a never ending story 1,045

 

My Pick & Mix link fests stalwartly foot the table, although disappointingly, my second collection of natural history haikus is also in the bottom ten 😦

Trends

Although in general, there still seems to be no signs of the number of people viewing my site reaching an asymptote or for that matter, the figures for December were the lowest of the year, by a considerable margin.  Is this the beginning of the end?

Linear still the best fit but is it levelling off?

Tweeting for entomology

I still find my interactions on Twitter very rewarding, although this past year I have become somewhat more political; Brexit and Trump, need I say more?  Most of my tweets are, however, still entomological and ecological and the increase in political comment has not stopped my followers from growing.  I finished 2018 with 6884 followers and begin 2020 with just over 8000, 8088 to be precise.   Many thanks to all my readers and especially to those who take the time to comment as well as pressing the like button.  My top commenters, as indeed they were last year, were fellow bloggers, Emma Maund, Emily Scott, Jeff Ollerton, Amelia from A French Garden and Philip Strange.  I look forward to interacting with you all in 2020.

In theory I am semi-retired from my daytime job, academia but I hasten to add, not from entomology.  I do, however, seem to be spending considerably more than 60% of my time doing stuff that I thought I would no longer have to do 😦

This time last year, I reported that I had submitted a proposal to OUP for a semi-popular entomology book.  I am happy to report that it was accepted, and I am now behind schedule in writing Insects – A Very Short Introduction 🙂

On a less happy note; to me, this has been, in some ways, a horrendous year.  Due largely to the selfish, bigoted and xenophobic behaviour of a large proportion of my very privileged generation, we are set to leave the great European project that has kept Europe largely peaceful for more than forty years. I would remind you, that not all of us voted to deprive our children and grandchildren of the rights and privileges that we have enjoyed since 1975.  It is also appropriate to remember that my father and his generation fought to enable us to enjoy that peace.

My late father (a fervent pro-European) and I (equally pro-EU), both aged 21; he in 1945 after having served in the Royal Marines since he was 17, endured the D-Day landings and fought in the Pacific, me in 1976, in my penultimate year at Leeds University. My teeth would have been the same but I had braces as a child 🙂

On the other hand, a lot of good things have happened; new friends, old friends and family all make life worth living, so in the words of the song “pick yourself up, dust yourself off and start all over again”.

A Happy and Prosperous New Year to you all.

References

Cardoso, P. & Leather, S.R. (2019) Predicting a global insect apocalypse. Insect Conservation & Diversity, 12, 263-267.

Côté, I.M. & Darling, E.S. (2018) Scientists on Twitter: preaching to the choir or singing from the rooftops?  Facets, 3, 682-694.

*The number of views for my annual reviews are as follows: 2014 (86), 2015 (110), 2016 (179), 2017 (115, of which 112 were in January).

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